• Using Dendritic Cells to Create Cancer Vaccines
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Dendritic Cell ( DC ) - This video is a basic overview of how DC cells recognize pathogens or lung cancer and take them back to the lymph nodes. There, white blood cells are presented or educated about the invader or patient specific lung cancer. These DC cells are found throughout the body and are the "guards" or warning cells.

For lung cancer treatment, DC cells are simply harvested from the patient’s own blood, just like a blood donation. Then grown, expanded or multiplied in a laboratory setting. A biopsy of the patients own lung cancer is also needed for this treatment and can be frozen until needed. This biopsy will be used to “educated” or prime the expanded DC cells to recognize the patient’s own lung cancer as an invader. Then the DC cells will be returned back to the patient, usually one week later, through a simple intravenous drip. The “educated” dendritic cells then go and attack the lung cancer in the patient; this is called personalized medicine or cancer vaccine. This Intravenous drip is done on a monthly basis, depending on the patient’s lung cancer and the doctor’s orders.

The future of dendritic cell ( DC ) therapy, predicted 5 years ago by a prominent Stanford Medical Researcher. The presentation  is from 2007. Lung cancer DC treatment is available today for patients with early stage lung cancer who would like to consider immunotherapy as a first course of action.


Background: Therapeutic outcomes of definitively treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are very poor. In the past two decades, adoptive immunotherapy, based on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or lymphokine-activated killer cells, has been used in clinical trials. Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized immune cells derived from bone marrow stem cells which are unique in their ability to initiate and maintain primary immune responses. The purpose of this trial is to decide dosage and to evaluate the clinical efficacy, immune responses, and safety by injecting dendritic cell vaccine in non-small cell lung cancer.

Methods: In this clinical trial, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was decided through the three step evaluations by initially injecting 3, 6, 12 X 106 autologous dendritic cells into the dermis for 3 times per 2 weeks and later 2 more times monthly in NSCLC. Enroll patients had completely standard therapy. Autologous dendritic cells were manipulated using GM-CSF and IL-4 for maturation and tumor lysate was loaded to DC by electroporation, pulse, or combination of both.

Results: A total of 15 patients were enrolled from January 2004 to April 2006, and they were vaccinated with autologous tumor-lysate- pulsed monocyte-derived DCs. the maximum dosage of 12X106 cell decided in this trial was safe. At the end of the clinical trial, the tumor estimation was conducted for 8 patients with 1 case of SD (12.5%) and 7 cases of PD (87.8%). To assess the potential to generate a tumor-specific immune response, an assay developed to determine intracellular IFN-γ production before and after vaccination. IFN-γ was examined in 9 patients. Immune responses were increased after 4th vaccination in 5 patients, all were more than 100% response rate. this response was not correlated to clinical outcome. Conclusions: MTD, 12 x 106 cell in this trial proved to be safe and the possibility of new treatment is suggested considering the fact that the patients in this trial were the ones who failed in the standard therapy or were not eligible for the therapy.


Trio get Nobel for Medicine 
Three scientists who unlocked the secrets of the body’s immune system have won the 2011 Nobel prize for medicine.
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